Abstract- An air conditioning system utilizing solar energywould generally be more efficient cost wise, if it was used toprovide cooling requirement in the commercial and domesticas well as industrial buildings. And in twenty first century israpidly becoming the perfect energy storm and the greatestchallenge facing mankind is energy. The demand for energycould double or triple as global population grows anddeveloping countries expand their economies. And so the mostabundant energy resource available to human society is solarenergy. Among the various renewable energy resources, theleast utilized energy is solar energy. To maintaining thermalcomfort in indoor environments, air conditioning is essentialfor hot and humid climates. The demand for electricity isgreatly increase in summer due to extensive use of airconditioning systems. The country's facing a source of majorproblem is electricity supply and contributes to an increase ofcarbon dioxide emissions causing environmental pollution andglobal warming and other hand, vapour compression airconditioning systems have effect on stratospheric ozonedepletion due to use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) and thehydro fluorocarbon (HCFC) refrigerants. To cool with solarthermal energy one solution is to use an absorption chillierusing water and lithium bromide solution. Solar airconditioning systems help in minimize fossil fuel energy use.Among the evolving energy efficient air conditioningtechnologies are liquid desiccant air conditioningsystems(LDAC) and is environmental friendly. And liquiddesiccant air conditioning can be driven by low grade heatsources such as solar energy and industrial waste heat.. And byuse of Si solar cell covered with the hierarchically structuredpackaging glass exhibit enhanced conversion efficiency by
5.2% at normal incident angle of 60*. And the nano-structuredsurface effectively repels dust/particles. So the self-cleaningomnidirectional light-harvesting design using the hierarchicalstructured packaging glass is a potential universal scheme forpractical solar applications.Key Words: solar energy, LDAC , Si solar cell, abundantenergy resource, carbon dioxide
INTRODUCTIONAs a kind renewable energy solar energy is paid more andmore in the world. Solar system can be classified into twocategories; those are thermal systems which convert solarenergy to thermal energy and photovoltaic systems whichconvert solar energy to electrical energy. However moresolar radiation which falling on photovoltaic cells is notconverted to electricity, but either reflected or converted tothermal energy. This method leads to a drop of electricityconversion efficiency due to an increase in photovoltaic cellsworking temperature.In the past century, scientific community has devoted mucheffort to procure energy sustainability of housing in twomain direction; those are reducing external energy supplyand using renewable energy for the remaining. In both ways,solar resources are gaining popularity because they increaseenergy independence and sustainability at the same timeoffering nearly zero impact to the environment .The earth's surface receives a daily solar dose of10E+8KW-hr, which is equivalent to 500,000 billion oilbarrels that is one thousand times any oil reserve known toman. And the solar energy is collector area dependent, and isa diluted form of energy and is available for only a fraction ofthe day. A lot of research is being conducted where there ishigh availability of solar energy just like in India. Solarenergy is abundant in summer months where there is noheating load, but instead of cooling is required. But thetoday's energy sources as shown in Fig. (1.1)
1.1 Renewable Energy
Renewable Energy considers the primary energy fromrecurring and non-depleting indigenous resources. Thereference scenario is projecting the world primary energydemand expands by almost 60% from 2002 to 2030, and theaverage annual increase percentage is 1.7% per year. Thedemand will be reaching 16.5 billion tons of oil equivalentscompared to 10.3 billion toes in 2002. There is the projectedrate of growth, but it is slower than over the past threedecades when it grew by 2% per year .On the other hand, the fossil fuels will keep monopolizing theglobal energy use. They will take up around 85% of theincrease in world primary demand over 2002–2030.Furthermore, the share in total demand will increase slightlyfrom 80% in 2002 to 82% in 2030. The share of renewableenergy sources will remain the same which is at around 14%while the nuclear power will drop from 7% to 5%.Hence, the negative effects of fossil fuel combustion on theenvironment with limited stock can force many countriesseeking environmentally friendly alternatives to sustain theincreasing energy demand. In this condition, theimprovement in the quality of life is raising with theindigenous energy resources. The growth of scarcity in fossilfuels has raised the global interest in the harnessing of solarenergy.Solar power is a renewable energy while currently coveringand assisting in merely a small portion of global energydemands. However, Photovoltaic (PV) power generates lessthan 1% of total electricity supplies since solar power hasbeen considered as one of the most expensive sources ofrenewable energies .1.2 Renewable Energy & IndustryOn the other hand, the need for cleaner alternative energyresources seeks various economy opportunities, especiallythe solar energy and biomass industry. Correspondingly,Malaysia introduced the solar (PV) and Feed-in Tariff (FiT)grid system on 1st December 2011 as represented in Fig.(1.2).
1.3 Utilization of Air Conditioning
At present, air conditioning is generally performed through acommon electronic device applies into various buildings.And air conditioning plays an important role towardsachieving a comfort level in terms of thermal sensations. Andthe above Fig.(3) shows the distribution of electricityconsumption among general appliances while highlightingthe air conditioners as the top ranked.2. LITERATURE REVIEWRavi Gugulothu et. al., present that today the human societyis facing problem is energy and they say that can beovercome by use of abundant energy sources available to usis solar energy and the demand for energy will be double ortriple in coming year around 2050. The more use ofelectricity and CO2 emission is major problem for thecountry's and due to this the global warming andenvironmental pollution take place. Due to the vapourcompression air conditioning system also have impact onstratospheric ozone depletion because of thechlorofluorocarbon and hydro fluorocarbon refrigerants andthe efficient technology to use is liquid desiccant airconditioning system and environmental friendly to coolindoor environment of building .Khaled S. Al Qdah, purposed to study the design andperformance of the system in AlMadinah AlMunawwarah tocool the indoor environment by solar air conditioningsystem because the temperature in summer is around 42°C ,so the air conditioning system is almost every building ofSaudi Arabia. And the coefficient of performance varies from
2.16 to 4.22 for the system and the result compare withconventional is better.Edlas Khor Jiunn Hao et. al., they made the comparisonbetween the solar and conventional air conditioning systemsand say that the greatest use of electrical energy iscontemporary energy crisis. They also focuses onLimkokwing University campus, and made a use of solarenergy for running an air conditioning system in the campus,save the energy for sustainable promotions also calculationapplied to estimate the save electricity, by the payback ofinvestment is in accordance. And because of this saving ofenergy is done so reduction in the greenhouse gas ispossible. The study represent the difference between the airconditioner and solar air conditioner regarding the energysaved, the final outcome is toward saving cost andenvironmental friendly .A. vaidyanathan, present that India receives solar radiationto more than 5,000 Trillion KWh/year, which is more thanits total annual energy requirement. Among solarphotovoltaic technologies, there are some devices/systemsuch as solar lanterns, solar home system, solar street lights,solar pumps, solar power packs, roof top solar photovoltaicsystems etc. By using of solar energy we can reduce burden ofconventional fuels. So this concept can use electricalequipment in both rural and urban area. The commercialbuilding uses excess electricity for air conditioning system i.e.nearly 60% and 20% for lighting, 5% for ventilation fans andfinally 20% for remaining equipment.3. METHOD AND MATERIALSMany tools are available for sizing the PV system with storage. The steps below summarize themethodology for this investigation.3.1. Collection of the required meteorological dataSuch as design temperatures, humidity, tilt angle, daily andannual values of solar radiation for the site and the numberof working hours. The space that has been chosen to becooled in this work is the office room with 4 × 4× 3 m usedby faculty member located inside AlMadinah and the firststep to size the air conditioner is the cooling load estimationfor this selected space.3.2. Cooling load calculationCooling load includes what kind of cooling and how much ofcooling needed. The space that will be cooled in this work foreight working hours a day located near AlMadinah city.Hourly analysis program (HAP) used, this programcalculating the cooling load for any location. First of all thesite must be specified as well design inside and outsidedesign temperature and relative humidity, thickness andtype of insulation materials used and the building structure.The design temperature used are 45˚C as a maximumtemperature during summer and the comfort temperature orthe inside temperature is 23˚C and the relative humidity of
50%. Finally the output of the program will be displayed foreach month. Fig.(3.1) displays the maximum and minimumcooling load for this space. It was found that the maximumcooling load during August it is about 3.4 kW where as theminimum cooling load during January 2.4 kW .
3.3. Design of the air conditioning systemBased on cooling load calculations, the air conditioning unithas been selected with the following specification: unitcapacity 3.52 KW or 1 ton refrigeration (1 TR) split unit,220v, input power 1.250 - 1.374 KW to provide the suitableCOP .3.4. PV system sizing and material selectionBased on air conditioning unit capacity that has beenselected under almadinah climatic conditions and the datacollected, where the intensity of solar radiation about 7.5kwh/m2, the PV solar-powered system specifications can beselected and design.A photovoltaic system is an array of components designed tosupply usable electric power for a variety of purposes. Thesun delvers its energy to us in two main forms, heat andlight. There are two main types of solar power systems,namely, solar thermal systems that convert heat toelectricity, and solar PV systems that convert sunlightdirectly into usable direct current (DC) electricity. One ormore DC to alternating current (AC) power converterswhich called inverters. PV cells are made from layers ofsemi-conducting material, usually silicon .When light shines on the cell it creates an electric fieldacross the layers. The stronger the sunshine, the moreelectricity is produced. Groups of cells are mounted togetherin panels or modules that can be mounted on your roof . Thepeak sun hour is essential in order to know the number of PVmodules to be installed. Before doing so, the power that canbe assumed generated by the PV modules must bedetermined based on solar irradiance of the location .The function of charger is to regulate the voltage and currentcoming from the solar panel going to the battery. The batteryis the key components in PV-SA systems as it act as energyback-up for the renewable energy systems. It also functionsas storage devices for storing PV generated electricity duringcloudy days and at night. In order to apply this system in ACload, the inverter is needed to convert the DC electricitygenerated by the PV panel into AC. The AC load is a commontype of load and easily available with cheaper in price.
As we mentioned previously, the purpose of chargecontroller is to regulate the current from the PV module toprevent the batteries from overcharging. A charge controlleris used to sense when the batteries are fully charged and tostop, or decrease, the amount of current flowing to thebattery. The solar energy is received by the PV module andtransform into electrical energy. The electrical energy is thenbeing regulated by charge controller either by supplies itdirectly into the load or charges the batteries. As theelectrical energy coming from the PV module is in DC,inverter will convert it into AC as the compressor needs ACto operate. The electricity provided by the panel array andbattery is DC at a fixed voltage. The voltage provided mightnot match what is required by the load. A direct/alternating(DC/AC) converter, known as inverter, converts the DCcurrent from batteries into AC.
3.5. PV Installation and Tilt Angle SelectionIn order to make the system work efficiently, the inclinationangle for the panels (Tilt angle) should be carefully selected.The optimum tilt varied from month to another and thecollected solar energy depends on the optimum panel tilt foreach month. It was found that the average optimum tilt angleat Madinah for the winter months is37˚ and for the summermonths is 12˚. So, the yearly average tilt panel is 23.5˚ whichnearly corresponding to the latitude of Madinah site 24.5˚
3.6. PV System Installation and ConnectionsAfter the material selection for PV panels, batteries, chargecontroller and inverter then using suitable basement,cabinets to protect the system, the frame for the panelsdesigned at an optimum tilt angle, the system installed withthe help of technical as shown in fig. which explain the actualfinal cycle that includes the air conditioning unit and powersupply system that can be used at any time; the system hasbeen tested for 8 hours per day with a full capacity .4. SOLAR CELLSThe heart of photovoltaic system is a solid state devices iscalled as solar cell.And the photovoltaic (PV) is the field of technology andresearch related to the application of solar cell for energy byconverting sunlight directly into electricity.4.1. Type of solar cells• Silicon Solar Cells:Single Crystal Si Cells: Commonly used. Usual efficiencyof 20%.Long lifetime (>20 yrs). Approaching thetheoretical limit of 29%. Cost of production $2.48/watt.Poly Crystal Si Cells: Less expensive. Efficiency is usuallyless than 15%.Amorphous thin film Si Cell: thin non-crystalline Silayers are printed on a substrate. Light weight and lessexpensive. Efficiency around 10%.• Cadmium Telluride Thin Film CellsInexpensive to produce; US$1/watt reported. Bestefficiency reported is 16.5%.Popular for solar panelarrays.• Copper Indium Gallium Selenide Thin Film Cell:Efficiency around 20% . Manufacturing costs are higherthat amorphous Si thin film cells, but dropping fast.
Gallium Arsenide Multi junction Cells:Maximum reported efficiency of 42.4%.Much moreexpensive to produce. Limited to scientific and high costcommercial usage.
Group of PV cells are electrically configured into modules andarrays which can be use to charge batteries, operate motors,and to power any number of electrical loads.5. ADVANTAGES Abundant, Constant and Perennial Supply Free, hence no fuel cost Clean and Green that is no emission of CO2,SOx, NOx,etc. 1 unit of solar energy saves 3.3 liters of fresh waterand 1 kg of CO2. Can be generated at the point of consumption Low T&D losses6. FACTORS AFFECTING SOLAR ENERGY6.1. Factors Governing availability of solar energyon the earth• Earth sun distance• Tilt of the earth’s axis• Atmospheric Attenuation6.2. Factors Affecting Solar Energy availability on aCollector Surface• Geographic location• Site location of collector• Collector orientation and tilt• Time of day• Time of year• Atmospheric conditions• Type of collector3. CONCLUSIONSIt is observed that today the human society facing problem isenergy. And by using solar energy we will save ourenvironment from greenhouse gases and keep ourenvironment clean and green for coming generation. Sousing of the electrical equipment like air conditioner, fans,etc, for our comfort by using fossil fuel like coal, petrol andnatural gas which form CO2 after burning of this fuel. Manyplace were solar energy can be use and government alsogiving a good policy for solar energy user and it also have
long life, investment cost can be recovered within 4-5 year ofspan .Today every modern I.T building using air conditioningsystem for comfort in indoor environment.REFERENCES Ravi Gugulothu, Naga Sarada Somanchi, Hima BinduBanoth & Kishan Banothu," A Review on Solar PoweredAir Conditioning System", Science Direct, Procedia Earthand Planetary Science 11 (2015) 361-367. Khaled S. Al Qdah, "Performance of Solar Power AirConditioning System Under Almadinah AlMunawwarahClimatic Conditions",Smart Grid and RenewableEnergy,2015,6,209-219. Edlas Khor Jiunn Hao and Ali GhaffarianHoseini," Solarvs. Conventional Air- Conditioning Systems: Review ofLIMKOKWING University Campus, Cyberjaya,Malaysia",Journal of Creative Sustainable Architecture & BuiltEnvironment, Vol.2, December,2012. Chin-An Lin, Meng-Lin Tsai, Wan-Rou Wei, Kun-Yu Lai &Jr-Hau he," Packaging Glass With a HierarchicallyNanostructured Surface: A Universal Method to AchieveSelf-Cleaning Omnidirectional Solar Cells", ACSPublications, December 1, 2015. A. Vaidyanathan," White paper on Solar ThermalTechnologies"CleantechConsultants,www.cleantechconsultants.in,2012. V Mittal, KS Kasana, NS Thakur," The Study of absorptionair- conditioning systems", Journal of Energy in SouthernAfrica, Vol16 No 4, November 2005. Y.J. Dai, X. Li, E. Q. Dai," SOLAR AIR CONDITIONING:IDEAS AND PRACTICES IN CHINA", National Scientificand technology program under contract2012BAA05B04.